Ancient history and settlement.
Before the arrival of the Spaniards, the city of Puno was a village, it had as its scenario the Bay of Lake Titikaka, it formed a marginal population located between the boundaries of the territories of the Kollas (Quechuas) to the north and the Lupacas (Aymaras ) to the south.
At the end of the 16th century, southern Puno was under the government of the Lupacas whose development reached great advances in agriculture, livestock, social organization and culture. On the other hand, the northern part from what is now Juliaca, was in the hands of the Kollas, whose domain was projected from the boundaries of the current Puno, to the banks of the Ramis River on the south – eastern side of Lake Titikaka .
The city of Puno was a modest village of Indians until the Viceroy Count of Lemos made it the capital of the province of Paucarcolla, on November 4, 1668. In parallel, he changed his old name of San Juan Bautista de Puno to that of San Carlos from Puno.
The peace period was over in 1781 when the Indian revolutions fought for independence as directed by Tupac Katari. In the war of independence at the beginning of the 19th century, Puno became an important connection city between Peru and Rio de La Plata in Argentina.
After independence in 1821 Puno was the scene of the battle between Peru and Bolivia, the latter occupying the Peruvian territories until Tacna and Moquegua, until the signing of the 1847 convention.
The port of Puno has vapors dating from the beginning of the republic, which were transported from Arica (Chile) to Lake Titikaka for the transport of minerals and passengers from Bolivia, which are preserved today, likewise a railroad was built that interconnects the departments of Cuzco and Arequipa that are still in service.
In the second half of the seventeenth century (1657) the Viceroy Conde de Lemos (Pedro Fernández de Castro) moved the port of San Luís de Alba, to what is now Puno and founded the village of the Immaculate Conception and San Carlos de Puno on 9 November 1663 and November 4 of that year, he is declared capital of the province of Paucarcolla (date that is celebrated every year). After having stifled a confrontation between Spaniards by the famous Laykacota mines, the same ones that were buried and executed by the brothers José and Gaspar Salcedo.
The province of Puno was created by a decree of May 2, 1854 and is the capital of the department today in the Puno Region.
Ancient history and settlement.
The Department of Puno is located in the southeastern part of the Peruvian territory between 13 ° 00 ‘and 17 ° 08’ South latitude and at 71 ° 08 ‘and 68 ° 50’ West longitude of the Greenwich meridian, in a territory of approximately 72,000 km², represents 5.6% of the Peruvian territory, with a population of 1,200,000 inhabitants, of which 60% is rural and 40% is urban.
70% of the territory is located on the Collao plateau and 30% occupies the Amazon region.
The capital of the department is the city of Puno, on the shores of the mythical Lake Titikaka, the highest navigable lake in the world, at 3,827 m.a.s.l. It is the center of conjunction of two great cultures: Quechua and Aymara; those that propitiated an incomparable heritage of customs, rites and beliefs. The main cities are: Puno, Juliaca, Juli, Azángaro, Lampa and Ayaviri.
Puno is located in the southeastern highlands of the country on the Collao Plateau at: 13 ° 0066’00 “and 17 ° 17’30” south latitude and 71 ° 06’57 “and 68 ° 48’46” of west longitude of the Greenwich meridian. It borders on the South, with the Tacna region. For the East, with the Republic of Bolivia and for the West, with the regions of Cusco, Arequipa and Moquegua. The Puno region is located in the highlands between 3,812 and 5,500 meters above sea level and between the jungle and the high jungle between 4,200 and 500 meters. It is worth mentioning that the capital, Puno, is located on the banks of the Titicaca, and the most important city is called Juliaca 65km from the latter at a height of 3825msnm.
Most important rivers: Suche, Huancané, Ramis, Coata, Ilave, Desaguadero and San Gabán.
Lagos: Titicaca (the highest navigable lake in the world) and Arapa.
Lagoons: Lagunillas, Saca Cocha and Umayo.
Islands: Amantani Island.
On Lake Titicaca: Amantaní, Taquile, Soto, the archipelago of the Chirita Islands, Ustute, Quipata, Chilata, Suasi, Esteves.
On Lake Huinaimarca: Sicaya, Lote, Caana, Pataguata and Yuspique.
Snowfall: Viscachani (6,000 masl) and Ananea Grande (5,830 masl).
Abras: Cruz Laca (at 4,850 masl) and Sipitlaca (at 4,800 masl) in Chucuito; Iscay Cruz (at 4,800 meters above sea level) in San Antonio de Putina; Susuyo (at 4,375 masl) in Carabaya.
It is flat in much of its Andean territory; also, part of its territory occupies the jungle region, adjacent to the jungles of Madre de Dios.
The Carabaya and Volcanic Mountains cross the department from East to West forming a large ring that closes the Vilcanota Knot. In the middle of this ring it extends to the Collao Plateau, an extensive inverted cone-shaped plain whose center is occupied by Lake Titicaca.
Altitude planes: Quechua, Puna, Janca and Rupa Rupa.
Queramani (5 890m).
Of the Collao.
Its limits are: in the north with the departments of Cuzco and Madre de Dios; by the south with the departments of Moquegua and Tacna; in the west with the departments of Cuzco and Arequipa and in the east with the Republic of Bolivia.