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History

Ancient history and settlement.

Ica has a rich history. The first settlers are from 10,000 years ago, from which the Wari, Chincha, Nazca, Ica and Paracas cultures developed, the latter being the most important.
The Paracas culture developed from the seventh through the 2nd century BC. It is distinguished by its matchless textile skills, trephinations, and the art of mummifying their dead.
The Nazca culture, on the contrary, well known for its artistic pottery, in which colorful designs and representations excel over the form, the same as their famous lines and figures that have undergone implausible interpretations. This culture expanded from the 2nd century BC through the 7th century AD. They have left us their wonderful aqueducts that made good use of underground water, of rivers and rain, showing a great knowledge of hydraulic engineering.
In the 15th century, during the Inca empire, Pachacuti incorporated the territories of Ica, Nazca and the Chincha valley.
Years later, in 1563, with the arrival of the Spanish, Jerónimo Luis de Cabrera founded the Villa de Valverde del Valle de Ica. Since then, the area became an important vineyard and cotton center.
During the independence war, General José de San Martín landed in Paracas and fixed his headquarters in Pisco, to start the fight for the independence of Peru.

Geography

Ancient history and settlement.

The Department of Ica has a remarkable geography. It is the only region of the southern coast formed by plains, also called coast plains, since the Andean Cordillera rise up inland. Some geological folds have determined the formation of dunes moving toward the sea, which form much of the Paracas Peninsula. Some isolated formations located at the southern part created the Marcona complex, with the biggest deposits of iron in the Pacific coast.

Ica’s configuration is due to the geomorphology of its two big and unique fluvial watersheds: the Pasco and Ica rivers. Also, it has a waterway called the Rio Grande, although its waters do not reach the ocean. Some waters are diverted for irrigation and agriculture in the provinces of Pampa, Nazca and Ingenio; the Rio Grande’s final riverbed is dry since sand and dried lands absorb its limited resources. There are extensive deserts in Ica, such as the Lancha Pampas. Pozo Santo and Villacuri pampas are extremely hot areas. Strong and persistent winds called paracas are present and stir up large sandstorms.

Ica Map

Ica Tours

SHORT INCA JUNGLE

City Tour, Culinary 5 1 review 6 days

MACHU PICCHU and VINICUNCA

Culinary, Cultural, Historic 0 review(s) 2 days

INCA TRAIL CUSCO

City Tour, Historic 5 1 review 7 days
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