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HSTORY OF QOSQO

Ancient history and settlement.

The Incas, sons of the Sun (Emperors or Kings), ruled the Tahuantinsuyo, a vast empire, whose Capital was Qosqo, (in Spanish Cusco or Cuzco) which means “navel”, “meeting point” or “center.” And this city was, the center of the empire, from which the Qhapaq Ñan departed, a vast network of roads (Inca roads) that went to the four of theirs or regions, which made up the 4 “parts of the universe.” in the Andean worldview. Considered by the Incas “abode of the gods”, They through two Legends founded the Qosqo (MUSOLOGICAL FOUNDATION OF CUSCO) and both are based on a mythical journey and concludes with the foundation of the Qosqo by undir a Bara given by the gods in the ground.
The first known legend: De Manco Cápac and Mama Ocllo, children of the god Sun (Inti) and the goddess Luna (Quilla).
From the Ayar brothers, companions of four sisters: Mama Guaco and Ayar Cachi, Mama Cora and Ayar Uchu, Mama Rawa and Ayar Aucca, Mama Ocllo and Ayar Manco.
Pre-ceramic objects of some 5000 years old have been found in the Cusco Valley, belonging to the Yauri and Chumbivilcas cultures. All the tribes that left their mark on the valley were nomads. Some of these objects are currently exhibited in the Museum of Pre-Columbian Art that constitutes THE HISTORICAL ORIGIN OF CUSCO. Already in the Empire of the Inkas its rulers were divided into:
Hurin Cusco and Hanan Cusco, were the two sides into which the Inca royal dynasty was divided, the first five rulers belonged to the Hurin division that corresponded to the lower part of Cuzco and the rulers who were in this dynasty were Manco Capac, Sinchi Roca , Lluqui Yupanqui, Mayta Capac and Capac Yupanqui.
The Hanan Cusco dynasty corresponded to the upper part of the city and its rulers were Inca Roca, Yahuar, Huaca, Huiracocha, Pachacútec. Túpac Inca Yupanqui, Huayna Cápac, Huáscar Atahualpa and Manco Cápac II; During this dynasty there was a great expansion of the Inca Empire.
In this time of splendor, cities were built, such as Machu Picchu; 23,000 kilometers of road, among which is the famous Inca Trail route; artificial irrigation canals with amazing technology, such as those seen in Moray; fortresses, pyramids and temples Etc.
Already conquered the Empire By the Spanish in March 1534 Pizarro founded the Spanish “very noble and very loyal city of Cuzco.”
After the looting and destruction of the imperial city
An earthquake in 1650 left the city practically in ruins. The reconstruction was done in colonial style, with special emphasis on wood carving decoration, as can still be seen in several chapels and churches in the region.
Today the sacred city of Cusco is one of the most visited cities by tourists from different parts of the world. It is located in a fertile valley bathed by the waters of the Huatanay and Tullumayu rivers. The streets are narrow and the buildings are made of stone. and the growth of the city with new buildings and communication routes.

Geography

Ancient history and settlement.

Location: The department of Cusco is located in southeastern Perù.
Superficial area: 71,891km2.
Capital: Cusco, Archaeological Capital of America.
Altitud: 3,350 M.S.N.L.
Climate:
In the high areas, the nights are cold and the days mild. There are two seasons: the rainy season and the dry season. The rainy season runs from November to March; the dry season is from April to October. The average temperature is 11°C (52° F).

Customs and feasts : In Cusco are many feasts thanks to the catholic devotion of its people and its history. One of the most important is the “Inti Raymi” (June 24th), this festivity is an Inca ritual to worship the sun, the main god of the Incas. Another important celebration is the “Qollur riti” (Lord of the snow), this is a catholic pilgrimage at the end of May (dates vary). Some people there hike a snow-capped mountain with huge blocks of ice on their backs as penitence. The feast of Virgen del Carmen (July 15th – 17th) is another catholic festivity celebrated in Paucartambo town with a procession accompanied by many musical ensembles and masked dancers.

Activities:
The most famous trek in Perù and South America is the Inca Trail to Machu Picchu, which has three alternatives. The longest one takes 8 days and 7 nights, it’s very hard and high. The most popular is the one of 4 days and 3 nights, in this one you pass through many Inca ruins and see different kinds of sceneries (Andean and tropical landscapes). And finally, the shortest one is only 2 days and 1 night, it’s easy but it has also its magic, the trail goes next to a beautiful waterfall and some ruins. All three finish in an impressive way in the citadel of Machu Picchu.

Access routes
By land: The road from Arequipa to Puno (1659 KM) is paved; the shortest route is Arequipa – Tintaya – Cusco, and takes 7 hours.
By air : There are daily domestic flights to Cusco from Lima and others cities, as well as international flights. The airport is less than 2 miles from downtown, and there is bus and taxi trip; available.

Cusco or Cuzco Map

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