Ancient history and settlement.
Its name comes from the Quechua “Ari-que pay”, which means “Yes, stay”. Arequipa is located at the point where the central Andean area and the south-central Andean area are divided, so that the valleys that are south of the Sihuas River are incorporated into this area. The separation became more apparent in the Time of the Wari Empire, which occupied the northern valleys, to the Sihuas.
The period of greatest peak is identified with the Churajón Culture, which has an extensive occupation of the Arequipa valleys, with very dense villages and large agricultural projects that are expressed in fully dominated irrigation, andenerías and valleys. In Arequipa there are important sites such as Casapatac, Sabandía or Churajón, which indicate a dense population.
In the valleys of the north, the Chuquibamba Culture was developed at the same time as Churajón, with extensions in the southern provinces of Ayacucho and with contacts with Cusco. The settlements of this culture, generally identified with the Collaguas, are especially notable in the Colca Valley.
Through Arequipa, the Incas descended to the Yunga region in search of new conquests. On the slopes of the Misti Volcano the Spanish conquerors led by Manuel de Carbajal founded the City of Arequipa. In the Republican Era, memorable revolutions such as those of Ramón Castilla, Mariano Prado, Nicolás de Piérola, Sánchez Cerro and others for which they have been called “collective leaders” occurred here.
Arequipa has become the center of the economic complex of southern Peru and is one of the most important milk producing departments in the country.
Ancient history and settlement.
Geographic location The department of Arequipa is located in the south of the country, with the following geographical coordinates: 70º48’15 “to 70º05’52” west latitude and 14º36’06 “to 17º17’54” south latitude; It borders the departments of Ica, Ayacucho, Apurímac, Cusco, Puno and Moquegua, in a length of 1,071 km. due to its north-east and south boundaries, in the west it presents an extensive coastline to the Pacific Ocean of 528 km, representing 18.1 percent of the length of the Peruvian coast. Arequipa is made up of 8 provinces: Arequipa, Camaná, Caravelí, Caylloma, Condesuyos, Islay and La Unión, which have 109 districts; it has an area of 63 345 km2, representing 4.9 percent of national territory, with a population density of 19.2 inhabitants per km2; its geography is rugged being volcanic activity an important factor in the configuration of its territory that is crossed from north to south by the derivations of the Western Andes
According to information projected by the INEI to 2011, the number of inhabitants in the department is 1 231 553, making up 4.1 percent of the national population. In the inter-census period 1993-2007 (14 years) the population of the department increased by 235 thousand 497 inhabitants, equivalent to 16 thousand 821 inhabitants per year; that is to say, it had an increase of 25.7 percent with respect to the population of 1993, which was 916 thousand 806 inhabitants. Within the department there is a marked process of urban growth, 90.6 percent of the population lives in the urban area and 9.4 percent in the rural area; according to sex, it is distributed almost equitably: 50.8 percent women and 49.2 percent men. According to the distribution by age group, the greatest number of people have ages ranging from 15 to 64 years of age that represent 66.2 percent, following the group of 0-14 years with 26.4 per percent, while those 65 and older make up 7.4 percent.
3. Climate and hydrography Due to its location, varied topography and different altitudes, its climate is varied; warm on the coast with temperatures between 12ºC to 29ºC, with small drizzles that range from 0 to 50 mm, the dominant wind is the trade wind; In the mountains the climate is dry and varies according to the altitude from warm temperate to intense cold, with an average temperature of 14ºC and with seasonal rainfall ranging from 100 to 700 mm per year, between the months of October to March. All the rivers that make up the Arequipa hydrographic system originate between the mountain peaks, from where they move along steep slopes and slopes west of the western mountain range, forming fertile valleys and deep canyons, to flow into the Pacific Ocean. Eight are the main rivers, among them 3 have regulatory infrastructure for the development of agricultural activity: Province Surface (km2) Population 1 / Arequipa 9 682 925 667 Camaná 3 998 56 605 Caravelí 13 140 38 797 Castilla 6 915 39 093 Caylloma 14 020 84 112 Condesuyos 6 958 18 744 Islay 3 887 53 180 La Unión 4 746 15 355 Total 63 346 1 231 553 1 / Projected as of June 30, 2011 Source: INEI-SIRTOD TABLE N ° 1 Arequipa: Area and Population 2011 3 a) Río Yauca, born in the department of Ayacucho, province of Parinacochas, and has the Ancascocha dam. b) Río Camaná, also called Majes or Colca, is one of the longest on the Peruvian coast, its springs are located to the south east of the province of Caylloma; in its route it irrigates valleys intensely cultivated and with these waters the dam of Condoroma is supplied that waters the pampas of the Irrigation Majes. c) Quilca River, formed by the Siguas and Vítor rivers, which then divides its basin into two large sectors, the one that runs along the fairly encased river and the other end that corresponds to the Vítor river, also called the Chili river, with whose waters they supply The El Frayle, El Pañe, Aguada Blanca and Pillones dams, the most important, not only for the agricultural area served but for the various uses it generates for human, mining, energy and industrial consumption.